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    妊娠糖尿病飲食治療
    2017年5月25日

           飲食治療是妊娠期糖尿病最主要、最基本的治療方法,85%的患者只需要進行單純的飲食治療就能使血糖得到良好的控制。

    多選粗糧

       以面包為例,白面包的GI(血糖生成指數)為70,但摻入75%~80%的大麥粒的面包為34,所以提倡用粗制粉帶碎谷粒制成的面包代替精白面包。

    簡單就好

       蔬菜能不切就不切,谷粒能整粒就不要磨。

    多吃膳食纖維

        在可攝取的份量范圍內,多攝取高纖維食物,如以糙米或五谷米飯取代白米飯,增加蔬菜的攝取量,吃新鮮水果而勿喝果汁等,可延緩血糖的升高,幫助血糖的控制,也較有飽足感,但不可無限量地吃水果。

    增加主食中的蛋白質

        在主食中增加蛋白質能夠很好地降低GI,如一般的小麥面條GI為81.6,強化蛋白質的意大利細面條GI為37。餃子就是較好的低GI食品,因為里面含有大量的蛋白質和纖維。

    炒菜時要用急火煮,少加水

        食物的軟硬、生熟、稀稠、顆粒大小對GI都有影響。加工時間越長,溫度越高,水分越多,糊化就越好,GI也越高,所以炒菜時最好用急火煮,少加水。

    多吃點醋

        食物經發酵后產生酸性物質,可使整個膳食的食物GI降低,所以在副食中加醋或檸檬汁,也是調節GI的有效方法。

    少食或忌食食物

        精致糖類:白砂糖、綿白糖、紅糖、冰糖等

        甜食類:巧克力、甜餅干、甜面包、果醬、蜂蜜等

        高淀粉類食物:土豆、山芋等

        油脂類:花生類、瓜子、核桃仁、松子仁等

        熬煮時間過長的淀粉類食物:如大米粥、糯米粥、藕粉等

    保證足夠的維生素和礦物質

         每日供給一定量的鮮奶或奶制品、動物肝臟、蛋、魚、蝦、豆類、干果類、大量的新鮮葉菜類,可以獲得足量的鈣、鎂、鐵、鋅、碘、硒、維生素和膳食纖維。

    合理控制總量,合理安排餐次

        一般孕早期每日能量攝入建議不低于1500 kCal,在孕中期和孕后期每日能量不低于1800 kcal,一般孕中、晚期每日能量需控制在1800~2200 kCal為宜。

    一般來說每日5~6餐,使血糖盡可能的波動少,早餐宜占總能量的10%~15%,中餐占30%,晚餐占30%,上午9—10點、下午3—4點和睡前各加餐1次占總能量的5%~10%。

                                             朱家角鎮社區衛生服務中心 沈君玉

                                              2017年5月 25日

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